Variability (Co-Variance) of Selected Length Dimensions of Female Students in a Longitudinal Physical Conditioning Programme of 18-Weeks

Authors : Seema Sharma (Kaushik)* &Dhananjoy Shaw**

*Department of Physical Education, Lakshmibai College, University of Delhi

**Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Delhi


*Correspondence Author.

Seema Kaushik

Associate Professor in Physical Education, Lakshmibai College, University of Delhi

Email address:


Article Received: 20.06.2021

Article Accepted: 15.08.2021

Article E-Published: 24.09.2021


Conditioning is usually referred to the circumstance of state of being. Physical conditioning enables an individual/ athlete to be prepared to take strenuous loads. It leads to various radical and mechanical changes in the body. Not many studies have investigated on the training effect of a systematic training or conditioning programme for female students in the University of Delhi.  Hence, the present study is aimed at studying the variability of covariance of selected length dimensions of female students (youth) in a longitudinal physical conditioning programme of 18-weeks duration. The sample size for the study was 78 (N) having three groups of female students i.e. progressive load (PLT, n1=26), constant load (CLT, n2=26), and no load group (NL, n3=26),); 26 samples in each group (mean age = 19.76±1.69 years). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length, foot length and foot breadth. The design of the study was a multi-group repeated measure design. The testing was conducted four times, i.e. pre-test and three post-tests at an interval of Six weeks on completion of each of the three meso-cycles. The variables were measured while using standard landmarks and protocols.  The study concluded that the progressive load of physical training positively affected foot breadth, leg length, arm length and foot length, whereas the constant load of the physical training group demonstrated changes in the foot breadth of female students (youth).

Key Words:physical conditioning, female students, length dimensions